Food Fortification: The Level of Awareness among Pakistani Consumers

How to Cite

Haris Murtaza, Abeer Yasin, Mahjabeen Qureshi, Aiman Sabir, Akasha Ashfaq, Anahita Sehar, Abdullah Khalil. Food Fortification: The Level of Awareness among Pakistani Consumers. sjrmu [Internet]. 2022 Sep. 13 [cited 2024 Apr. 22];26(1):59-64. Available from:



Background: A lack of essential vitamins and minerals required in small amounts by the human body for proper growth and development is termed as micronutrient deficiency. Such deficiencies are widespread among Pakistani consumers and they include anemia, deficiencies of iron, vitamin A, zinc, vitamin D etc.

Objective: The objectives of this study are to assess awareness levels of Pakistani consumers regarding food fortification and to determine factors affecting purchase of fortified food.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among the inhabitants of selected areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad over a period of one year. Sample size was 398 as calculated by WHO sample size calculator. Non-probability consecutive sampling technique was used. Residents of Rawalpindi and Islamabad aged 18 and above were included while people involved in food industry (owners and employees) were excluded. Data were collected through self-structured questionnaire and analyzed on SPSS version 22. Descriptive statistics were calculated.

Results: 53.3% of our respondents were found to be aware of the term ‘food fortification’, and 67.5% people believed that the government should make food fortification mandatory.

Conclusion: The majority of the population was aware of the benefits of fortification of milk with vitamin D and preferred fortified milk for their children. The most important factors governing purchase of fortified food were price, availability and nutritive value.

Keywords: food fortification, awareness, vitamin D, nutritive value.